Correlation of keratinizing tumors

From dermoscopedia

5.00
(1 vote)

 Editor: Oriol Yélamos

 Author(s): Oriol Yélamos     ·  Ralph P. Braun
Annotations
Description This chapter describes the correlation of keratinizing tumors
Author(s) Oriol Yélamos · Ralph P. Braun
Responsible author Oriol Yélamos→ send e-mail
Status released
Status update January 1, 2019
Status by Ralph P. Braun


User=

White circlesThis glossary term has not yet been described.

White circles are bright white circles around a yellow/orange keratin plug (Rosendahl et al., 2012a). Histopathologically, they reveal acanthosis and hypergranulosis of the infundibular epidermis and are highly suggestive of keratoacanthomas and well-differentiated SCCSquamous cell carcinoma (table 2) (Rosendahl et al., 2012a).

Dark dotsDots are small, round structures of less than 0.1 mm in diameter that have a red color when corresponding to blood vessels; however, when due to melanin, their color ranges from black, brown, to blue-gray depending on the depth and concentration of the melanin in the skin (Tyndall effect)./globules or round circles in linear arrangementThis glossary term has not yet been described.

Dark brown/gray dots/globules arranged linearly are frequently found in pigmented SCC in situnot seen to be spreading from a localized position/pigmented Bowenalso known as squamous cell carcinoma in situ[1] is a neoplastic skin disease. It can be considered as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma. It was named after John T. Bowen diseaseThis glossary term has not yet been described. (Cameron et al., 2010). Histologically, they correspond to aggregates of atypical basal pigmented keratinocytes.

Strawberry patternReddish pseudo-network (erythema and wavy fine vessels) around hair follicle openings which are accentuated with a white halo appearance

The strawberry patternReddish pseudo-network (erythema and wavy fine vessels) around hair follicle openings which are accentuated with a white halo appearance is a reddish pseudonetworkA structureless pigment area interrupted by non-pigmented adnexal openings interrupted by prominent follicular openings (Kittler et al., 2016a). Histologically, it corresponds to a localized increase in vasculature. The strawberry pattern is highly suggestive of non-pigmentedThis glossary term has not yet been described. actinic keratosisActinic keratosis (also called solar keratosis and senile keratosis; abbreviated as AK) is a pre-cancerous patch of thick, scaly, or crusty skin. (Zalaudek et al., 2006).

RosettesFour bright white dots or clods arranged together as a square (or a four leaf clover)

Rosettes or four-clod dots are seen as four bright white dots or clods arranged together as a 4-leaf clover (or as a square). Histologically, they reveal hyperkeratosis of the follicular openings alternating with normal stratum corneum (Liebman et al., 2012, 2011). A recent study using ex-vivo dermoscopyThe examination of [skin lesions] with a 'dermatoscope'. This traditionally consists of a magnifier (typically x10), a non-polarised light source, a transparent plate and a liquid medium between the instrument and the skin, and allows inspection of skin lesions unobstructed by skin surface reflections. Modern dermatoscopes dispense with the use of liquid medium and instead use polarised light to cancel out skin surface reflections. and transverse histological sections with polarization showed that smaller rosettesFour bright white dots or clods arranged together as a square (or a four leaf clover) correspond to polarization of concentric horn material in adnexal openings (follicular or eccrine ducts), and larger rosettes to concentric perifollicular fibrosis (M. Haspeslagh et al., 2016). Rosettes are associated with keratinizing tumors, but can be seen in BCCAbbreviation for Basal Cell Carcinoma, inflammatory dermatosis (M. Haspeslagh et al., 2016) and are rarely seen in melanomaThis glossary term has not yet been described. (González-Álvarez et al., 2014).

Scale

Scales are homogenous opaque yellow/brown structuresThis glossary term has not yet been described.. Histologically, they reveal hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis (Tan et al., 2016; Wolner et al., 2017). Scale is common in AKs, SCC, and inflammatory dermatosis.

Gray circles or inner gray halo

Gray circles or an inner gray halo are a subtle homogeneous gray or brown halos that surround follicular openings (as an internal ring). Histologically, they correlate to pigmentation of the basal keratinocytes surrounding the hair follicle, and are observed in pigmented AKs (Nascimento et al., 2014).