Juvenile xanthogranuloma is the most common non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis and it has a characteristic dermoscopic pattern that has been described as a ‘setting sun’. It appears as an orange-yellow area encircled by erythremic border. Other dermoscopic features include pale yellow globules, subtle pigment network, whitish streaks, and branched linear or dotted vessels.
The dermoscopic features were suggested to correlate with the maturation level of the lesions. The ’setting sun’ appearance was found in early evolutionary and in fully developed lesions. In fully developed lesions, the surrounding erythema decreased and yellow globules became more evident. In late regressive lesions, prominent whitish streaks were identified.
Dermoscopy is helpful in differentiating juvenile xanthogranuloma from other conditions that present as solitary yellow-orange lesions.
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- Song et al.: Structural correlations between dermoscopic and histopathological features of juvenile xanthogranuloma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011;25:259-263. PMID: 20698915. DOI.