Pattern analysis

From dermoscopedia

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 Editor: Harald Kittler

 Author(s): Harald Kittler     ·  Florentia Dimitriou
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Description This chapter describes the pattern analysisThis glossary term has not yet been described. in dermoscopyThe examination of [skin lesions] with a 'dermatoscope'. This traditionally consists of a magnifier (typically x10), a non-polarised light source, a transparent plate and a liquid medium between the instrument and the skin, and allows inspection of skin lesions unobstructed by skin surface reflections. Modern dermatoscopes dispense with the use of liquid medium and instead use polarised light to cancel out skin surface reflections.
Author(s) Florentia Dimitriou · Harald Kittler
Responsible author Harald Kittler→ send e-mail
Status released
Status update October 4, 2019
Status by Ralph P. Braun


This chapter describes the pattern analysis in dermoscopy

It has the following subchapters:

Structures used in pattern analysis Harald Kittler
Colors used in pattern analysis Harald Kittler
Chaos and clues Harald Kittler


User=



Introduction

  • “Simplified” algorithms such as the ABCDThis glossary term has not yet been described. rule, the 7-pointThis glossary term has not yet been described. checklistis a type of informational job aid used to reduce failure by compensating for potential limits of human memory and attention., the CASH algorithmIn mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (Listeni/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ AL-gə-ri-dhəm) is a self-contained sequence of actions to be performed. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks., or Menzies' method were developed as uncomplicated and easily assimilated guidelines for daily use. These algorithms are easy to learn but, with the exception of Menzies' method, not easy to apply.
  • Menzies' method is the only scoring system that follows an initial screening based on an overall assessment of pattern and color to determine whether a detailed investigation is worthwhile.
  • The sequence of assessment, first pattern, then colorColor (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, purple, or blue., and finally cluesEvidence, in an investigation, concurs exactly with the approach of pattern analysis. Menzies' method is a highly simplified version of the algorithms of pattern analysis, but limited to melanocyticThis glossary term has not yet been described. lesions.
  • Simple and easily learned rules of thumb based on pattern analysis can be formulated, that fulfill the demand for a rapid and uncomplicated algorithm, but without this restriction to melanocytic lesions (chaos and cluesThis glossary term has not yet been described.This an algorithm used in dermoscopy [[Chaos and Clues]])
  • The basics of pattern analysis are easy to learn, but its application is sometimes complex and needs experience.




Full pattern analysis


  • Pigmented skin lesions can be described very clearly and reliably with the aid of the patternsThis glossary term has not yet been described., colorsThis glossary term has not yet been described. and clues.
  • Pattern analysisThis glossary term has not yet been described. is a structured description in the form of an algorithm with fixed and reproducible rules.

The algorithm always follows this formula:

Pattern + Color + CluesEvidence, in an investigation = Diagnosisis the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience to determine "cause and effect". In systems engineering and computer science, it is typically used to determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations, and solutions

  • Based on patterns, colors and clues, the number of potential diagnoses is minimized.
  • In cases in which it is not possible to dispel all doubts in respect of the diagnosisis the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience to determine "cause and effect". In systems engineering and computer science, it is typically used to determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations, and solutions, the degree of doubt and the type of possible diagnoses will be decisive factors to determine whether a histopathological investigation should be performed.




ReferencesThis is material contained in a footnote or bibliography holding further information.

  1. An Atlas of DermoscopyThe examination of [skin lesions] with a 'dermatoscope'. This traditionally consists of a magnifier (typically x10), a non-polarised light source, a transparent plate and a liquid medium between the instrument and the skin, and allows inspection of skin lesions unobstructed by skin surface reflections. Modern dermatoscopes dispense with the use of liquid medium and instead use polarised light to cancel out skin surface reflections., Second Edition. Marghoob A. et al. CRC Press; 2012.
  2. Altamura, D., Menzies, S.W., Argenziano, G., et al., 2010, DermatoscopyThe examination of [skin lesions] with a 'dermatoscope'. This traditionally consists of a magnifier (typically x10), a non-polarised light source, a transparent plate and a liquid medium between the instrument and the skin, and allows inspection of skin lesions unobstructed by skin surface reflections. Modern dermatoscopes dispense with the use of liquid medium and instead use polarised light to cancel out skin surface reflections. of basal cell carcinomais the most common skin cancer, and one of the most common cancers in the United States.[1] While BCC has a very low metastatic risk, this tumor can cause significant disfigurement by invading surrounding tissues: morphologic variability of global and local features and accuracy of diagnosis. J Am Acad Dermatol, 62, 67–75.
  3. Argenziano, G., Soyer, H., Chimenti, S., et al., 2003, Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions: results of a consensus meeting via the Internet. J Am Acad Dermatol, 48, 679–93.
  4. Binder, M., Kittler, H., Steiner, A., et al., 1999, Reevaluation of the ABCD rule for epiluminescence microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol, 40(2 Pt 1), 171–6.
  5. Binder, M., Schwarz, M., Winkler, A., et al., 1995, Epiluminescence microscopy. A useful tool for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions for formally trained dermatologists. Arch Dermatol, 131, 286–91.
  6. Braun, R.P., Gaide, O., Oliviero, M., et al., 2007, The significance of multiple blue-grey dots (granularityThis glossary term has not yet been described.) for the dermoscopic diagnosis of melanomaThis glossary term has not yet been described.. Br J Dermatol, 157, 907–13.
  7. Cameron, A., Rosendahl, C., Tschandl, P., Riedl, E. & Kittler, H., 2010, Dermatos- copy of pigmented Bowenalso known as squamous cell carcinoma in situ[1] is a neoplastic skin disease. It can be considered as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma. It was named after John T. Bowen’s diseaseThis glossary term has not yet been described.. J Am Acad Dermatol, 62, 597–604.
  8. Chamberlain, A.J., Fritschi, L. & Kelly, J.W., 2003, Nodular melanomaThis glossary term has not yet been described.: patients’ per- ceptions of presenting features and implications for earlier detection. J Am Acad Dermatol, 48, 694–701.
  9. Kittler, H., 2007, Dermatoscopy: introduction of a new algorithmic method based on pattern analysis for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Dermatopathol Pract Conc, 13, 1.
  10. Kittler, H., Riedl, E., Rosendahl, C. & Cameron, A., 2010, Dermatoscopy of unpig- mented lesions of the skinThis glossary term has not yet been described.: a new classificationis a general process related to categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood. of vessel morphologyThis glossary term has not yet been described. based on pattern analysis. Dermatopathol Pract Conc, 14, 3.
  11. Menzies, S.W., Crotty, K.A. & McCarthy, W.H., 1995, The morphologic criteriameasure of how well one variable or set of variables predicts an outcome of the pseudopod in surface microscopy. Arch Dermatol, 131, 436–40.
  12. Pehamberger, H., Steiner, A. & Wolff, K., 1987, In vivo epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions. I. Pattern analysis of pigmented skin lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol, 17, 571–83.